Mughal emperor Akbar sent many missions against him. However he survived and ultimately gained control of all areas of Mewar excluding fort of Chittor. The principal centers of their powers were Nagaur and Ajmer. Ranthambhor was also under their suzerainty.
At the beginning of the 13th century, the most prominent and powerful state of Rajasthan was Mewar. The Rajputs resisted the Muslim incursions into India, although a number of Rajput kingdoms eventually became subservient to the Delhi Sultanate. Mewar led others in resistance to Muslim rule: Rana Sanga united the various Rajput clans and fought against the foreign powers in India.
Akbar arranged matrimonial alliances to gain the trust of Rajput rulers. He also granted high offices to a large number of Rajput princes and this maintained very cordial relations with them.
Before long, these actions caused many previously hostile Rajputs to be his friends, and many of them surrendered their kingdoms to him. Rulers like Raja Maan Singh of Amer were trusted allies. They never accepted Akbar's supremacy and were at constant war with him. This struggle was continued by — Rana Pratap. He fought a terrible battle with Akbar at the Haldighat pass where he was defeated and wounded. Since then Rana Pratap remained in recluse for 12 years and attacked the Mughal ruler from time to time.
He fought valiantly throughout his life never ceded his independence to the Mughal ruler. An ancient ruin in Jaisalmer , Rajasthan. When Rajput rulers lost to invaders during the medieval period, their womenfolk would commit suicide by self-immolation on a pyre. This was a gesture to protect their chastity and self-respect, and it was known as Jauhar. This expansion finally brought the newly founded Hindu Maratha Empire in contact with the Rajputs.
Rajasthan saw many invasions by the Marathas , under military leadership of Holkars and Scindhias. Most of Rajputana passed under the control of the Maratha Empire and continued to pay tribute to Pune till the British East India Company replaced the Marathas as paramount rulers. This was a significant identifier, being modified later to Rajputana Province and lasting until the renaming to Rajasthan in The Company officially recognised various entities, although sources disagree concerning the details, and also included Ajmer-Merwara, which was the only area under direct British control.
Of these various areas, Marwar and Jaipur were the most significant in the early 19th-century, although it was Mewar that gained particular attention from James Tod, a Company employee who was enamoured of Rajputana and wrote extensively, if often uncritically, of the people, history and geography of the Agency as a whole.
Alliances were formed between the Company and these various princely and chiefly entities in the early 19th century, accepting British sovereignty in return for local autonomy and protection from the Marathas. Following the Mughal tradition and more importantly due to its strategic location Ajmer became a province of British India, while the autonomous Rajput states, the Muslim state Tonk princely state , and the Jat states Bharatpur, [Dholpur] were organized into the Rajputana Agency.
In , the British Government concluded treaties of alliance with almost all the states of Rajputana. Thus began the British rule over Rajasthan, then called Rajputana. The name of Rajasthan was probably popularised by Tod and during his lifetime some people believed that he had coined it. Therefore in the merger of south and southeastern states was almost complete. Still retaining their independence from India were Jaipur and the desert kingdoms of Bikaner , Jodhpur and Jaisalmer.
From a security point of view, it was vital to the new Indian Union to ensure that the desert kingdoms were integrated into the new nation. The princes finally agreed to sign the Instrument of Accession, and the kingdoms of Bikaner, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Jaipur were merged in March On January 26, , 18 states of united Rajasthan merged with Sirohi to join the state leaving Abu and Dilwara to remain a part of Greater Bombay and now Gujarat.
Thus giving the existing boundary Rajasthan. Rajasthan has become the largest state of the Indian Republic. The princes of the former kingdoms were constitutionally granted handsome remuneration in the form of privy purses and privileges to assist them in the discharge of their financial obligations.
In , Indira Gandhi , who was then the Prime Minister of India, commenced under-takings to discontinue the privy purses, which were abolished in Many of the former princes still continue to use the title of Maharaja, but the title has little power other than status symbol. Many of the Maharajas still hold their palaces and have converted them into profitable hotels, while some have made good in politics. The democratically elected Government runs the state with a chief minister as its executive head and the governor as the head of the state.
Currently, including the new district of Pratapgarh, there are 33 districts, sub-divisions, 37, villages, tehsils and towns in Rajasthan. Gurumukh Nihal Singh was appointed as first governor of Rajasthan. Hiralal Shastri was the first nominated chief minister of the state , taking office on 7 April He was succeeded by two other nominated holders of the office before Tika Ram Paliwal became the first elected chief minister from 3 March