George, the first major English settlement in India and the foundation stone of Chennai St. According to the Archaeological Survey of India ASI , Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment, and pre-historic communities resided in the settlement. During the 1st century CE , a poet and weaver named Thiruvalluvar lived in the town of Mylapore a neighbourhood of present Chennai.
They also defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras , Cholas and Pandyas who ruled over the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire , which ruled the region during the medieval period.
In , the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat , north of Chennai. George , the first major English settlement in India,  which became the nucleus of the growing colonial city and urban Chennai, grew around this Fort. George, due to a change in the Government. George and Madras were captured by the French under General La Bourdonnais , the Governor of Mauritius , who plundered the town and its outlying villages.
Because of Madras and its people, English now exists in India, otherwise Hindi might have been made the sole official language in India. Geography of Chennai Chennai is located on the south—eastern coast of India in the north—eastern part of Tamil Nadu on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains.
Its average elevation is around 6. A third river, the Kortalaiyar , travels through the northern fringes of the city before draining into the Bay of Bengal, at Ennore.
The estuary of this river is heavily polluted with effluents released by the industries in the region. Several lakes of varying size are located on the western fringes of the city.
Some areas of the city have the problem of excess iron content in groundwater. In these areas, rainwater runoff percolates quickly through the soil. The crust has granite rocks indicating volcanic activities in the past. Flora and fauna of Chennai The southern stretch of Chennai's coast from Tiruvanmiyur to Neelangarai are favoured by the endangered Olive Ridley sea turtles to lay eggs every winter.
A large number of cattle egrets , pond herons and other waterbirds can be seen in the rivers of Cooum and Adyar. About 75, birds migrate to Chennai every year. Guindy National Park is a protected area within the city limits. Wildlife conservation and research activities take place at Arignar Anna Zoological Park including Olive ridley sea turtle conservation.
A total of species of trees belonging to 94 genera and 42 families are found in the city. Urbanization has led to shrinkage of water bodies and wetlands.
The city lies on the thermal equator  and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature. The lowest recorded temperature was Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal sometimes hit the city.
Historically, Chennai has relied on the annual rains of the monsoon season to replenish water reservoirs, as no major rivers flow through the area.