There are no means of communication and information exchange among the ships without radio equipment. Development of e-navigation 3. The SIP focuses on the five prioritized e-navigation solutions which are emphasizing the efficient transfer of marine information between all appropriate users ship-ship, ship-shore, shore-ship and shore-shore and the promotion of the workable use of the information and data onboard.
During the development of the SIP, a number of tasks have been identified in order to continue the further development and implementation of e-navigation IMO, a. HCD employs the methods of U-TEA, the results of which drive a formal feedback loop in the design stages to ensure usability and continued safety. Taking into account the ship navigation surroundings in Korean coastal waters, MOF set up the national strategy plan for the development and implementation of e- navigation in MOF, An , p.
Firstly, the core technologies of e-navigation services include the technology for situational awareness of maritime traffic and response to navigational hazard based on real-time traffic monitoring system together with ship position information. Secondly, a digital communication system and an e-navigation operation system will be established as a digital infrastructure.
The digital communication system is a key for the implementation of e-navigation. AIS-ASM transmitted in binary format will be increasingly used to digitally communicate maritime safety information between participating vessels and shore stations. Apart from the GMDSS technologies, LTE-M enables smaller ships which have not fitted with radio equipment to communicate and exchange data within km in coastal waters from the shore. LTE-M has the ability to manage fast-moving mobiles and supports multi-cast and broadcast streams.
It is expected that LTE-M will improve the safety of smaller ships and fishing vessels significantly. Figure 2 shows the maritime communications in e-navigation system. The Maritime Cloud will be established to exchange data and information between ships with different communication system. E-Navigation Communication Systems Source: The e-navigation operation system will consist as shown in Figure 3.
E-navigation Operation System Source: An , p.. In this context the e-navigation services for non-SOLAS ships would be navigation support services, communication support services and safety information services. It enables mariners to install ENC data in the shipboard chart plotter by themselves. In non-SOLAS ships, it is practically impossible to use paper charts and publications because of up-date related problem and inconvenience.
The chart plotter for non-SOLAS ships should be approved by the government in accordance with national laws and regulations. The chart plotter also should have means of obtaining position and heading information. In addition, the communication network will be connected in the chart plotter to exchange data and information with shore centre and other ships.
ENC up-date should be performed automatically through the maritime communication network according to the Notice to Mariners which are published by the Hydrographic Authority.
ENC Streaming Service ENC streaming service is intended to support smaller ships, fishing vessels and leisure boats which are not fitted with chart plotter. In the ENC streaming service, it is expected that the portable display unit will be used instead of fixed chart plotter. The mariner does not have to download or install the ENC data. The chart information will be displayed through streaming which sent from shore support centre.
In the chart streaming system, the chart up-date service is not necessary. The portable display unit should have means of obtaining position and heading information. The LTE-M network should be connected in the portable display unit to connect into internet and shore data centre. It is estimated that approximately 30, smaller ships, fishing vessels and leisure boats will be the target of ENC streaming service.
This service is intended to support the ship in trouble with navigation system. The routeing support service might be provided in the dense foggy weather on demand from ships. Communication Support Service based on Maritime Cloud Since the mobile communication networks LTE-M will be used in maritime communication together with existing GMDSS, the Maritime Cloud is necessary to enable seamless information exchange between various systems and across different physical communication links.
The Maritime Cloud consists of standards, infrastructure and service reference implementations. The concept of Maritime Cloud is shown in Figure 4. Concept of Maritime Cloud Source: Conclusions It is clearly understood that e-navigation will help to improve the safety of navigation. The main benefits of e-navigation are expected to be improved safety and better protection of the environment through the promotion of standards of navigational system and a reduction in human error.
This study examined the present navigation and communication system of non-SOLAS ships based on relevant laws and regulation to draw the findings. Finally, it is proposed that the e-navigation services for non-SOLAS ships would be navigation support services, communication support services and safety information services. This study will help for the planning and designing of the Korean e-navigation system which will focus on the e-navigation services for non-SOLAS ships.
In order to realize the e-navigation services for non-SOLAS ships, the navigational support system should be established in Korean e-navigation operation system. In this respect, further study on the development of navigational support system for non-SOLAS ships would be needed in the future. From the point of view of this paper, interesting are also attempt of introducing in e-navigation concept also so called non-solas ships.
Detailed description of navigation and communication systems based on cloud computing for non-solas ships can be found for example in An,